Swimming is present at the Olympics since the very beginning of modern Olympic Games – the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.

The first Croatian swimmers – participants at the Olympic Games in Paris in 1924 are: Ivo Arčanin, Ivan Pavelić, Ante Roje, Vladimir Smokvina and Atilije Venturini.
The first Olympic medals, gold and silver one, have been won by Đurđica Bjedov at the Olympic Games in Mexico City in 1968.
Since the Croatian independence, the one and only holder of Olympic medal (silver) in this discipline is Duje Draganja (Athens Olympics 2004).