Basketball entered the Olympic program at the Olympic Games in St. Louis in 1904 as demonstration sports and since the Berlin Olympics in 1936, it was present at each subsequent edition of the Olympic Games.

The first Croatian basketball players participating at the Olympics (Rome 1960) were Giuseppe Giergia and Zvonimir Petričević.

The winners of the first Olympic medal, the gold one, won at the Olympic Games in Mexico City in 1968, are the basketball players Krešimir Ćosić, Nikola Plečaš, Petar Skansi, Damir Šolman and Zoran Maroević.

Krešimir Ćosić, Vinko Jelovac, Željko Jerkov, Andro Knego and Damir Šolman are the winners of the silver Olympic medal, won at the Olympic Games in Montreal in 1976.

Krešimir Ćosić, Željko Jerkov, Andro Knego, Duje Krstulović, Mihovil Nakić, Branko Skroče and Zoran Slavnić are the winners of gold Olympic medal, won at the Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980.
Mira Bjedov, Sanja Ožegović and Zorica Đurković are the winners of bronze medal, won at the same Olympics, the Moscow Olympics 1980.

Andro Knego, Mihovil Nakić, Aleksandar Petrović, Dražen Petrović, Ivan Sunara and Branko Vukičević are the winners of bronze medal, won at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984.

Franjo Arapović, Danko Cvjetičanin, Zoran Čutura, Toni Kukoč, Dražen Petrović, Dino Rađa and Stojko Vranković are the winners of silver medal, won at the Olympic Games in Seoul in 1988.
Danira Nakić, Žana Lelas and Kornelija Kvesić are the winners of silver medal, won at the same Olympics, the Seoul Olympics 1988.

The first and so-far the only Olympic medal (silver), won under our own flag at the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992, has been won by the Croatian Olympic Basketball Team consisting of: Vladan Alanović, Franjo Arapović, Danko Cvjetičanin, Alen Gregov, Arijan Komazec, Toni Kukoč, Aramis Naglić, Velimir Perasović, Dražen Petrović, Dino Rađa, Žan Tabak and Stojko Vranković.