Athletics, the Queen of Sports, is present at the Olympics since the very beginning of modern Olympic Games – the Olympic Games in Athens in 1896.

The first Croatian athletes participating at the Olympic Games (Paris Olympics 1924) were Đuro Gašpar, Peroslav Ferković, Veljko Narančić and Aleksa Spahić.

The first Olympic medal (silver) has been won by Ivan Gubijan in Hammer Throw at the Olympic Games in London in 1948.
Franjo Mihalić is the winner of silver medal at the Olympic Games in Melbourne in 1956.
Under the Croatian flag, Olympic medals have been won by Blanka Vlašić (silver medal at the Beijing Olympics 2008) and Sandra Perković (gold medal at the London Olympics 2012)